Different Types of Retaining Walls
Gravity walls are dependent on the mass of the rock stone, or synthetic material to push against pressures that come from behind. They may contain a small ‘batter’ setback, which improves the foundation and it’s stability by lying back on the soil. Smaller walls are sometimes made from mortarless rock or segmental concrete units. One of the perks of gravity walls is they are flexible, they don’t require strong footing in areas that frost in the winter. Larger gravity walls do need rigid footing made from concrete. This people could use a retaining wall specialist and an professional excavator. This makes digging a trench much easier.
Geosynthetic or precast facing, gabion, crib walls or soil-nailed walls are taking over for massive concrete or stones for larger retaining walls.
Cantilevered walls are steel-reinforced, with concrete that is cast into place or mortared masonry. These are often in the shape of the inverted T. A big, structured footing is cantilevered loads which converts horizontal pressures from the back of the wall to vertical pressures on the floor below. These walls are often buttressed on the front which increases the strength pushing back against high loads. Much less material is needed for this kind of wall.
Sheet piling retaining walls are likely to be the wall of choice when confronting soft soils and tight spaces. These types of walls are made out of steel, vinyl or wood planks that are smashed into the ground. Usually there is 1/3 above ground and 2/3 below ground but this tends to be altered depending on the environment. Taller sheet piles may need to be anchored.
Anchored retaining walls are built in any of the previous types but the strength is improved by using large cables or other materials so it is anchored in the rock or soil. A boring is used to push the anchor into the material. This is usually done by mechanized means or by injecting pressurized concrete.